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8th Science & Health
8th Science & Health
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Human Body Systems
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Properties of Matter
Forces, Energy, & Motion!
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By Kate Becker
Whether they are created by nature or in the lab, chemical substances are all made of some combination of just 118 pure elements. These elements come together to produce an amazing diversity of materials. In this interactive, discover which elements are most abundant in the universe, the sun, and the Earth as well as in the human body and in that flashiest of human creations—fireworks. Also, learn which elements have the most extreme properties on the periodic table.
Introduction to Chemistry is the booklet we are using for parts of our Chemistry Unit. We also use Carolina's Properties of Matter and Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements lab modules.
(see Properties of Matter Page for more information over the topics covered in Ch 1)
Lesson 1: Describing Matter
What Properties Describe Matter?
Vocabulary for Ch 1 (Lessons 1,3, and 4- p 20-25)
Lesson 2: Classifying Matter
What is Matter Made Of?
What Are Two Types of Mixtures?
Lesson 3: Measuring Matter
What Units Are used to Express Mass and Volume?
How Is Density Determined?
Lesson 4: Changes In Matter
What Happens to a Substance in a Physical Change?
What Happens to a Substance in a Chemical Change?
How Are Changes in Energy and Matter Related?
Ch 2: Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Why does a substance change states?
What do we mean when we talk about "phase changes"? (brainpop.com)
is a change in the physical properties of a substance. It usually involves the substance changing its state between a gas, liquid, and solid. Phase changes are most often caused by changes in temperature, and can also be brought on by changes in pressure. Here are the six main types of phase changes:
1) Something going from solid to liquid (increasing heat) is said to be
2) Something going from liquid to solid (decreasing heat) is said to be
3) Something going from liquid to gas (increasing heat) is said to be either
boiling or evaporating
4) Something going from gas to liquid (decreasing heat) is said to be
5)Something going from solid straight to gas (increasing heat, skipping the liquid stage) is said to be
6) Something going from gas straight to solid (decreasing heat, skipping the liquid stage) is said to be
Ch 3: Elements and the Periodic Table
Notes for Lessons 1-5 (without colored drawings)
How is the periodic table organized?
Good Interactive Periodic Table
Interactive periodic table
FUN ELEMENT SONGS: become familiar with the chemical names...impress your friends!!!
They Might Be Giants: Elements Song
Tom Lehrer: Element Song
Daniel Radcliffe: Element Song
ELEMENT QUIZ (1st 20 elements and their symbols)
1st 20 Elements
Study Stack Flashcards: 1st 20 elements
Interactive Periodic Table
ELEMENT RESEARCH PROJECT:
The Hindenburg Disaster- actual footage!
Here is a great clip that covers all the basic chemistry for 8th grade. The quality is not the best, but the content is worthy!!!
Bill Nye Atoms
Understanding atoms, elements, and molecules part 1
Study Stack Flashcards
Iron in $$$$
Don't Mess With Mercury
Heat Transfer Animation
Here's the NOVA show we watched called Hunting the Elements:o) It has some great information and background on the elements & our world!!!
NOVA: Hunting The Elements
NOVA: Hunting the Elements Discussion Questions
Chemical Hazards in Your Home
The Most Radioactive Places on Ear
The Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project clip: Tickling the Dragon
Ch 4: Atoms and Bonding
How can bonding determine the properties of a substance?
Ch 5: Chemical Reactions
How is matter conserved in a chemical reaction?
Ch 6: Acids, Bases, and Solutions
What determines the properties of a solution?
A Solution Is A Type Of Mixture
1. The parts of a solution are mixed evenly.
A solution is a homogeneous mixture; all portions of a solution have identical properties. The solute is the substance that is dissolved. The solvent dissolves the solute.
Solutes, solvents, and solutions can be liquids, solids, or gases.
The solute and solvent can be int he same or in different physical states.
A suspension is a mixture with large particles. The particles do not dissolve, and the mixture is not a solution.
2. Solvent and solute particles interact.
When a solid dissolves in a liquid, the solute breaks apart. Solute particles are surrounded by solvent particles and are evenly distributed in the solution.
Ionic compounds break up into individual ions when they dissolve, as the diagram below shows.
When a covalent compound dissolves, the molecules separate from each other, but the covalent bonds remain intact and the individual molecules remain whole.
3. Properties of solvents change in solutions.
A solute changes the physical properties of a solvent.
The freezing point of a solution is lower than the freezing point of the pure solvent.
The boiling point of a solution is higher than the boiling point of the pure solvent.
The Amount Of Solute That Dissolves Can Vary
1. A solution with a high concentration contains a large amount of solute.
The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute dissolved in it at a particular temperature. Solutions can be made more concentrated by adding solute, or more dilute by adding solvent.
A saturated solution holds as much of a given solute as it can at a given temperature. If a solution contains more solute than can normally dissolve at a given temperature, it is super-saturated. Supersaturated sollutions are very unstable, and distrubing the solutioon will cause the excess solute to come out of the solution as a precipitate.
Every substance has a characteristic solubility, the amount that will dissolve in a certain amount of a certain solvent at a given temperature.
2. The solubility of a solute can be changed.
An increase in temperature increases the solubility of most solid solutes and decreases the solubility of gaseous solutes. An increase in pressure increases the solubility of gaeous soluts. The solubility of solid and liquid solutes are not usually affected by changes in pressure.
3. Solubility depends on molecular structure.
Solubility depends on changes of solute and solvent particles. Molecules with regions of electrical charge and ions dissolve in polar solvents such as water. Nonpolar molecules do not.
Solutions Can Be Acidic, Basic, Or Neutral
1. Acids and bases have distinct properties.
An acid can donate a hydrogen ion to another substance when the acid is dissoved in water.
HCl is an acid and donates a hydrogen ion in a water solution
Acids taste sour, react with carbonates to form carbon diosice, and react with many metals
A base can accept a hydrogen ion from another substance.
In water, the base NaOH releases a hydroxide ion which can accept a hydrogen ion
Bases taste bitter and feel slippery or soapy
2. The strengths of acids and bases can be measured.
Strong acids and bases break apart completely into individual ions. No complete molules of te acid or base remain in the solution. A weak acid or ase does not break apart completely into ions, and contains bot molecules of the acid or base and into iosn, and contains both moecules of the acid or base and its ions.
The acidit of a solution is measured on the pH scale.
Acids produce a high hydrogen ion concentration and have a low pH- from 0 to 6.9.
Bases produce a low hydrogen ion concentration and have a high pH- from 7.1 to 14.
Solutions of pH 7 are nuetron, neither acidic nor basic.
3. Acids and bases neutralize each other.
WHen an acid and a base come in contract with each other, they undergo a neutralization reaction. The hydrogen ion from the acid and the hydroxide ion from the base combine to form water. The hegative ion from the acid and the positive ion from the base combnine to form a salt. THe products of a neutraliztion reactio- water and a salt- are neutral substances.
Strong bases can be more corrosive than strong acids!
There are acids and bases virtually everywhere you turn! The pH scale is used to measure acids and bases. The scale ranges from 0, for a very strong acid, to 14, for a very strong base. The pH scale measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in a substance, compared to distilled water. Here is a list of common substances by pH:
pH = 0: battery acid (sulfuric acid), strong hydrofluoric acid
pH = 1: acid secreted by the lining of the stomach (hydrochloric acid)
pH = 2: lemon juice, vinegar
pH= 3: grapefruit, orange juice, soda
pH = 4: tomato juice, acid rain
pH = 5: black coffee
pH = 6: urine, saliva
pH = 7: distilled water (neutral)
pH = 8: sea water
pH = 9: baking soda
pH = 10: milk of magnesia
pH = 11: ammonia solution
pH = 12: soapy water
pH = 13: bleach, oven cleaner
pH = 14: liquid drain cleaner
Cabbage Juice Indicator
Acid Rain Evidence in Washington D.C.
Strong Acid Demonstration Part 1
Strong Acid Demonstration Part 2
Metal Alloys Are Solid Mixtures**
1. Humans have made allooys for thousands of years.
An alloy is a solid mixture that has many of the characteristics of a solution. In an alloy, a solid (usually metal) solute is mixed with a solid metallic solvent. Alloys are made by melting the metal components and mixing them in the liquid state. The physical properties of an alloy are different from those of the solvent metal.
There are two general types of alloys. Brass is an example of one type, called a substitutional alloy, in which some of the copper atoms are replaced by zinc atoms. Steel is an example of the other tyoe, called an interstitial alloy, in which carbon atoms occupy gaps between iron atoms.
2. Alloys have many uses in modern life.
New alloys are constantly being developed in response to the development of new technologies. In the transportation industry, medicine, and the aerospace industry, new alloys with unique properties are developed to fulfill specific requirements. For example, aluminum alloys, which have a relatively low density and are lightweight, but very strong, are used in such applications as cars and aircraft. More dense alloys, such as steel, are used in applications in which weight is not an important feature.
Nitinol Video: Scientific Tuesdays
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