Forces, Energy, & Motion!


Unit Summary

Forces, Energy, and Motion Background
NOVA: Making Stuff Faster
The Tablecloth Magic Trick & Newtons Laws of Motion
Khan Academy: Newtons 1st Law of Motion
Khan Academy's Newtons Second Law of Motion
Khan Academy's Newtons Third Law of Motion
What Does Newtons Laws Say? (what does the fox say?)
Newtons 3 Laws of Motion & Sports
Newtons 3 Laws of Motion- The Lego Show
Forces and Motion Quizlet Flashcards
Study Guide: Ch 1 Lessons 1-3, Ch 2 Lessons 1-3
Lesson 1: Circuit of Inquiries ( 6 observation labs)
Introduction-
What do you know about forces, energy, and motion? In this lesson, you will complete six short inquiries about the topics in this unit. The inquiries are designed to get you thinking about physical forces, energy transformations, and the motion of objects. The observations you make and the ideas you discuss in this lesson will prepare you for future inquiries in this module.
Objectives-
1) Perform a series of activities to investigate forces, energy transformations, and motion.
2) Observe, describe, and hypothesize about the physical phenomena you experiment within the activities.
3) Relate your observations to personal experiences.


Lesson 2: The Force of Gravity
Introduction-
Think about jumping off the low or high board at the swimming pool. What forces are at work and what are they like? This is the first of several lessons in which you will investigate different forces. In this lesson, you will investigate a force that you experience everyday- the force of gravity. In the lessons that follow, you will investigate other forces-including friction, elastic forces, and magnetic forces.
Objectives-
1) Measure the weight of objects with different masses.
2) Describe how mass and weight (force of gravity) are related.
3) Use data tables and graphs to interpret data.


Lesson 3: The Force of a Rubber Band
Introduction-
Trampolines are a lot of fun. What forces are at work as you bounce up and down on a trampoline? You just investigated one of these forces- gravity, in Lesson 2. In this lesson, you will investigate another force that makes it possible to have fun!
Objectives-
1) Describe the nature of elastic forces and how they act on objects.
2) Determine how the force a rubber band exerts is related to its stretch.
3) Use data tables and graphs to interpret data.

Lesson 3 Lab questions/reflection questions/reading questions
World's Larges Rubber Band Ball
How It's Made: Rubber Bands
The Physics of Bungee Jumping!
Lesson 4: The Force of Friction
Introduction-
In Lessons 2 and 3, you investigated the properties of gravity and elastic forces in rubber bands. In this lesson, you will explore another force- friction. Friction is another force you experience every day. People spend time, money, and effort to reduce it. You might be surprised to learn that friction is not always bad. It can be very helpful too.
You will investigate the force of friction as you pull a wooden block at a constant speed across a surface. As you do so, you will investigate three variables- surface type, weight (load), and surface area (base area)- and determine how each affects the frictional force between the block and the surface. In each trial, you will change one variable and keep the other two the same. This method is an example of good experimental design. As in the previous inquiries, you will record observations, collect data, and draw conclusions based on what you discover about friction. Understanding friction will help you understand motion, which you will study later in this unit.
Objectives-
1) Observe the properties of sliding friction.
2) Measure the force of friction on a wooden block pulled across different surfaces.
3) Measure the force of friction on loads of different weights.
4) Measure the force of friction on a wooden block with different base areas in contact with a surface.
Newsela Article on Friction
Bill Nye: Motion
Bill Nye- Friction
Making Of Shuttle Tiles
Lesson 5: Magnetic Forces
Introduction-
In Lesson 2, you investigate gravity and observe how Earth’s gravity attracts objects. Another naturally occurring force is magnetism. Magnetic forces are used in many ways. Can you name ways that you have seen magnets used? In this lesson, you will explore magnetic forces and conduct a “fair test” of what affects a magnet’s strength.
Objectives-
1) Distinguish magnetic from non magnetic materials.
2) Observe and describe the nature of magnetic forces.
3) Conduct a “fair test” of factors that affect a magnet’s strength.


Lesson 6: The Earth’s Magnetic Force
Introduction-
In Lesson 5, you investigated magnetic forces. You saw how magnets can exert forces on other magnets and on other objects that can be magnetized. In this lesson, you will investigate the magnetic force that is the result of the earth’s magnetic field at your location. You will build a compass and use it to see how the force of the Earth’s magnetic field affects the compass.
Objectives-
1) Discover the characteristics of a magnetic compass.
2) Develop proficiency in manipulating materials, following plans, and troubleshooting.
3) Investigate magnetic poles.
4) Learn about the historical significance of the magnetic compass and its present uses.

Lesson 7: Rolling Along
Introduction-
What happens when an object moves? How can you measure its motion? What forces are at work? These are questions that you will explore in this lesson and the lessons that follow. Understanding notion and forces makes it possible to predict where an object will be at some future time. This makes it possible to make planes fly, cars move, and even to send spacecraft to distant planets and keep them on course over billions of miles. In this lesson you will begin your investigation of motion by looking at how a steel ball moves. you will also begin to think about energy associated with moving objects.
Objectives-
1) Observe and describe the motion of an object.
2) Learn how to calculate average speed.
3) Measure the speed of an object across a flat surface.
4) Explore Newton’s First Law of Motion.
5) Calculate the kinetic energy of a moving object.

Lesson 8: Exploration Activity: Getting Around
Introduction-
The Exploration Activity is a research project that will give you the opportunity to apply what you learn in this unit. With a partner, you will select a single transportation device to study. You will research to obtain as much information as you can about this transportation device during the next few weeks. You will focus on how this device demonstrates the concepts and principles of forces, energy, and motion that you have studied. You will share what you learn by making a presentation about the transportation device to the class.
Objectives-
1) Understand the goals of the Exploration Activity.
2) Select a transportation device to research.
3) Develop a plan to research the selected device.
4) Work as a team to research information.
5) Share knowledge with classmates.

Lesson 9: The Fan Car
Introduction-
In this lesson, you will continue your study of motion and forces. You will analzye the motion of a fan car you construct using K’NEX parts and a battery-powered fan. You will observe the motion of the fan car with the van turned off and with the fan turned on. In Lesson 10, you will study the motion of a vehicle powered by a mousetrap. THen, in Lessons 11 and 12, you will build a model roller coaster and study the motion of a car moving on the roller coaster track. As in previous lessons, you will make predictions, record observations, gather data, and draw conclusitons vased on evidence from your observations and data.
Objectives-
1) Describe the force exerted by a battery-powered fan.
2) Describe the motion of a fan car.
3) Determine the effect of a constant unbalanced force on the speed of a fan car.
4) Calculate a fan car’s average speed at different times as it moves along a path.


Lesson 10: The Mousetrap Car
Introduction-
In Lesson 9, you built a fan car and measured its speed as it moved along the tape. In this lesson, you will build a mousetrap car and investigate ins motion. You will design an experiment that will enable you to measure the speed of the car as it moves after the trap is released. You will also identify the forces acting on the car and describe ow these forces affect the car’s motion. You will then compare the motions of the fan car with those of the mousetrap car.
Objectives-
1) Identify and describe the forces acting on the mousetrap car.
2) Observe and measure the speed of the mousetrap car as it moves.
3) Describe how forces affect the motion of the mousetrap car.
4) Describe the energy changes in the mousetrap car as it moves across the floor.
5) Compare the motion of the fan car with the motion of the mousetrap car.


Lesson 11: The Roller Coaster
Introduction-
In Lessons 9 and 10, you investigated the motion of a fan car and a mousetrap car. You looked at how the speed and kinetic energy of the cars changed as they moved across the floor. In this lesson, you will build a roller coaster and a roller coaster car. You will test the roller coaster to make sure it works properly. In the next lesson, you will learn how to put energy into the roller coaster car. You will then investigate how the speed and energies associated with the car change as it moves to the track.
Objective-
1) Build a roller coaster.


Lesson 12: Motion On a Roller Coaster
Introduction-
When you enjoy the thrill of a ride on a roller coaster, you are experiencing the laws of physics and energy and motion in action. In this lesson, you will use the roller coaster and roller coaster car your class built in Lesson 11. You will investigate energy transformations as the roller coaster car moves along the roller coaster track. You will also compare the motion of the roller coaster car with the motions of the fan car and the mousetrap car that you built in previous lessons.

Objectives-
1) Observe and describe the motion of the roller coaster car as it moves along the track.
2) Predict the motion of the roller coaster car when it is released at different points along the track.
3) Measure the speed of the roller coaster car at several points on the track.
4) Describe the energy changes in the roller coaster car as it moves along the track.

Lesson 13: Assessing What You’ve Learned
Introduction-
In this unit, you investigated energy, forces, and motion. You explored how energy is transformed-how it changes from one form to another-and you examined the nature of different forces. You analyzed the motion of a fan car, a mousetrap car, and a roller coaster car. You also learned how to graph data and draw conclusions from your observation.


This lesson gives you a chance to show how well you learned the skills and concepts presented in the previous lessons. You will be given a set of data from an experiment. You are to analyze the data and then draw conclusions based on your analysis. In the second part of the assessment, you will complete short-answer and multiple-choice questions.


ENERGY:

Potential Energy (stored energy or energy of position)*

Chemical
Nuclear
Stored Mechanical
Gravitational Energy


Kinetic Energy (energy of motion)*
Radiant
Mechanical
Electrical
Thermal
Sound
*lists from WindWise Education.org



ALTERNATIVE ENERGY:

Motion/Mechanical - energy which is "stored" and released with the movement of fluids- water or wind
Tidal Power- uses ocean tides to generate power by wither using the moving water in the straits, mouths of rivers, or the entrances of bays or using a turbine to capture the energy generated by the difference in height between water at high tide and low tide. (gravitational potential energy)
Hydroelectric/Hydropower
Wind Turbines
Large ships can save money and the environment with large sails or kites designed to move them-
KITE-SHIP INNOVATION

Solar Energy: Save by the Sun

NOVA Making Stuff Cleaner